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United Nations documents

Peaceful settlement of disputes: working paper (A/CN.4/641, 30 March 2011)

Formation and evidence of customary international law. Annual Report of the International Law Commission 2011 (A/66/10), Yearbook of the International Law Commission 2011, Vol II (2) Annex I

Formation and evidence of customary international law. Note (A/CN.4/653), Yearbook of the International Law Commission 2012, Vol II (1)

First report on formation and evidence of customary international law (A/CN.4/663), Yearbook of the International Law Commission 2013, Vol II (1)

Second report on identification of customary international law (A/CN.4/672, 22 May 2014)

Third report on identification of customary international law (A/CN.4/682, 27 March 2015)

Fourth report on identification of customary international law (A/CN.4/695, 8 March 2016)

The settlement of international disputes to which international organizations are parties. Annual Report of the International Law Commission 2016 (A/71/10), annex A

Fifth report on identification of customary international law (A/CN.4/717, 14 March 2018)

Articles and books


“The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally  Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents”, 23 International and Comparative Law Quarterly (1974)

“The European Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism”, 1 Yearbook of European Law (1981)

THE LEGAL STATUS OF BERLIN (with I.D. Hendry) (1987)

Contributions to L.-E. Pettiti, E. Decaux and P.-H. Imbert (eds.), La Convention européenne des droits de l’homme (1990; 2 nd ed., 2000)

“Security Council Working Methods and Procedure:Recent Developments”, 45 International and Comparative Law Quarterly (1996)

“Participation of Former Yugoslav States in the United Nations and in Multilateral Treaties”, 1 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (1997)


“The Interpretation of Security Council Resolutions”, 2 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (1998)

“The Modern Law of the Sea”, British Maritime Industry Catalogue (1999)

“International Seabed Authority: The First Four Years”, 3 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (1999)

“Legal Advisers at Permanent Missions to the United Nations”, in C. Wickremasinghe (ed.), The International Lawyer as Practitioner (2000)

“The United Kingdom and the divided Germany: the role of British lawyers”, in J.A. Frowein et al, (eds.), Verhandeln für den Frieden – Negotiating for Peace, Liber Amicorum Tono Eitel (2003)

“The Perspective of a Foreign Ministry Legal Adviser”, in M. Evans (ed.), International Law (2003) , available at


“Northern and Western European Maritime Boundaries”, in D. Colson and R. Smith, International Maritime Boundaries, Vol. V (2005)

“Report No. 2-23, Honduras-United Kingdom (Cayman Islands” (with C. López Contreras), in D. Colson and R. Smith, International Maritime Boundaries, Vol. V (2005)

Various other contributions to D. Colson and R. Smith, International Maritime Boundaries, Vol. V (2005) and Vol. VI (2010)

“The Security Council as a Law Maker: The Adoption of (Quasi)-Judicial Decisions”, in R. Wolfrum and V. Röben (eds.), Developments of International Law in Treaty Making (2005)

“Towards New Circumstances in which the Use of Force may be Authorized? The Cases of Humanitarian Intervention, Counter-terrorism, and Weapons of Mass Destruction”, in N. Blokker and N. Schrijver (eds.), The Security Council and the Use of Force: Theory and Reality – A Need for Change? (2005)

“The United Kingdom’s Acceptance of the Compulsory Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice”, in O. Fauchald, H. Jakhelln and A. Syse (eds.), Festskrift til Carl August Fleischer (2006), reproduced in J.-P. Gauci and J. Barrett (eds.), Anthology of British Contributions to International Law 1915-2015 (2020)

“Nécessité et légitime défense dans la lutte contre le terrorisme: quelle est la pertinence de l’affaire de la Caroline aujourd’hui?”, in La nécessité en droit international : Société française pour le droit international, Colloque de Grenoble (2006)


“The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea and General International Law”22 International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law (2007)

“The Selection of Candidates for International Judicial Office: Recent Practice”, in T.M. Ndiaye and R. Wolfrum (eds.), Law of the Sea, Environmental Law and Settlement of Disputes: Liber Amicorum Judge Thomas A. Mensah (2007)

“The Law on the Use of Force: Current Challenges”, 11 Singapore Year Book of International Law (2007)

“The Security Council and International Criminal Law”, 5 Romanian Journal of International Law/Revista Română de Drept Internaţional (2007)

“The International Seabed Authority: Fifth to Twelfth Sessions (1999-2006)”, 11 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (2007)

“A European Vision of International Law: For What Purpose?”, in H. Ruiz-Fabri, E. Jouannet and V. Tomkiewicz (eds.), Select Proceedings of the European Society of International Law, Vol. 1 (2006) (2008)

“The General Assembly and the International Law Commission: What Happens to the

Commission’s Work and Why?”, in I. Buffard, J. Crawford, A. Pellet and S. Wittich (eds.), International Law Between Universalism and Fragmentation. Festschrift in Honour of Gerhard Hafner (2008)

“Good faith (bona fides) in international law”, in P. Cane and J. Conaghan (eds.), The New Oxford Companion to Law (2008)

“The Principle of Non-intervention” (with M. Jamnejad), 29 Leiden Journal of International Law (2009)

“Detention during International Military Operations: Article 103 of the Charter and the Al-Jedda case”, 47 Revue de Droit Militaire et de Droit de la Guerre/The Military Law and the Law of War Review (2009)

“The Reality of International Law”, Inter Alia (2009)

“Piracy and International Law”, CMI News Letter, No.2 (May/September 2009)

“‘Constitutionalization’ of International Law: A Sceptical Voice”, in K.H. Kaikabad and M. Bohlinder (eds.), International Law and Power: Perspectives on Legal Order and Justice. Essays in Honour of Colin Warbrick (2009)

THE INTERNATIONAL LAW COMMISSION 1999-2009 (with A. Pronto) (2010)

“The Law of Treaties and the UN Security Council: Some Reflections”, in E. Cannizzaro (ed.), The Law of Treaties beyond the Vienna Convention (2011)

“What Is Public International Law? The Need for Clarity about Sources”, 1 Asian Journal of International Law (2011)


“Public International Law and the Idea of the Rule of Law”, in M. Pogačnik et al (eds.), The Challenges of Contemporary International Law and International Relations - Liber Amicorum in Honour of Ernest Petrič (2011)

“Advisory Jurisdiction: Lessons from Recent Practice”, in H. Hestermeyer et al (eds.), Coexistence, Cooperation and Solidarity. Liber Amicorum Rüdiger Wolfrum (2012)

“The Immunity of Official Visitors”, 16 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (2012)

“Immunity from jurisdiction and immunity from measures of constraint”, in R. O’Keefe and C. Tams (eds.), UN Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property. A Commentary (2013)

“Self-Defense Against Nonstate Actors: Reflections on the “Bethlehem Principles”” (with E. Wilmshurst), 107 American Journal of International Law (2013)

“Institutional Aspects of the Guide to Practice on Reservations”, 24 European Journal of International Law (2013)

“The Current Work of the International Law Commission and the Role of Judges in Relation to International Custom”, in L. Lijnzaad and Council of Europe (eds.), The Judge and International Custom (2016) (also as “Introductory Remarks” to Conference on “The Judge and International Custom”, 12 The Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals (2013)).

“The role of the UN Security Council in relation to the use of force against terrorists”in L. van den Herik and N. Schrijver (eds.), Counter-Terrorism Strategies in a Fragmented International Legal Order. Meeting the Challenges (2013)

“‘Weighing’ the Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations”, in M. Ragazzi (ed.), The Responsibility of International Organizations. Essays in Memory of Sir Ian Brownlie (2013)

“The International Law on the Use of Force. What Happens in Practice?”, 53 Indian Journal of International Law (2013)

“Do International Organizations Enjoy Immunity Under Customary International Law?”, 10 International Organizations Law Review (2013), reproduced in N. Blokker and N. Schrijver (eds.), Immunity of International Organizations (2015)

“The Role of International Lawyers in Government”, in: D. Feldman (ed.), Law in Politics, Politics in Law (2013)

“The International Bar” (with E. Sthoeger), in C. Romano, K. Alter and Y. Shany (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of International Adjudication (2014)

“European perspectives on inter-state litigation”, in N. Klein (ed.), Litigating International Law Disputes: Weighing the Options (2014)


“Collective Security and Collective Self-defence: Key Distinctions”, in M. Weller (ed.), The Oxford Handbook on the Use of Force (2014)

“Terrorism and the international law on the use of force”, in B. Saul (ed.), Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (2014; 2 nd ed., 2020)

“Settlement of Disputes and Assistance Mechanisms. Comments”, in Journée d’études de Nanterre, Actualités des réserves aux traités (2014)

“Romania, the ICJ, and the 1989 Advisory Opinion concerning the Applicability of Article VI, Section 22, of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations (the Mazilu case): an outsider’s view”, in B. Aurescu (ed.), Romania and the International Court of Justice (2014)


eds.) (2015)

“The practicalities of representing a client in complex multiparty proceedings: the example of Kosovo” (with Q. Rasheed), in M. Milanović and M. Wood (eds.), The Law and Politics of the Kosovo Advisory Opinion (2015)

“International Organizations and Customary International Law” (2014 Jonathan J. Charney Distinguished Lecture in Public International Law), 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015)

“Reflections on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Living Instrument”, in J. Barrett (ed.), Law of the Sea - UNCLOS as a Living Treaty (2016)

“Custom’s Bright Future: The Continuing Importance of Customary International Law” (with O. Sender), in C. Bradley (ed.), Custom’s Future. International Law in a Changing World (2016)

“The emergence of customary international law: Between theory and practice” (with O. Sender), in C. Brōlmann and Y. Radi (eds.), Research Handbook on the Theory and Practice of International Lawmaking (2016)

“The present position within the ILC on the topic “Identification of customary international law”: in partial response to Sienho Yee, Report on the ILC Project on “Identification of Customary International Law””, 14 Chinese Journal of International Law (2016)

“The CAHDI and the peaceful settlement of disputes”, in Council of Europe (ed.), The CAHDI Contribution to the Development of Public International Law: Achievements and Future Challenges (2016)

“The Iraq Inquiry: Some Personal Reflections” 87 British Yearbook of International Law (2016)

“2016 Lalive Lecture. Choosing between Arbitration and a Permanent Court: Lessons from Inter-State Cases”, 32 ICSID Review - Foreign Investment Law Journal (2017)

“Legal Advisers”, in A. Zidar and J.-P. Gauci (eds.), The Role of Legal Advisers in International Law (2017)

“Self-Defence Against Non-State Actors - A Practitioner’s View”, 77 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht/Heidelberg JIL (2017)

“Concluding Observations”, Special Issue on ‘Beyond the Identification of International Customary Rules, 19 International Community Law Review (2017)

“Non-ingérence: frappez avant d’entrer” in H. Ascencio et al (eds.), Dictionnaire des idées recues en droit international (2017)

“The interpretation of Security Council resolutions, revisited”, 20 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (2017)

“The use of force against Da‘esh and the jus ad bellum”, 1 Asian Yearbook of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law (2017)

Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece intervening) (with O. Sender), in E. Bjorge and C. Miles (eds.), Landmark Cases in Public International Law (2017)

“A Mystery No Longer? Opinio Juris and Other Theoretical Controversies Associated with Customary International Law” (with O. Sender), 50 Israel Law Review (2017)

“Le rôle contemporain du droit international coutumier”, in M. Forteau and J.-M. Thouvenin (eds.), Traité de droit international de la mer (2017)

“Understanding the Advisory Jurisdiction of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea”, in The Contribution of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea to the Rule of Law: 1996-2016/La Contribution du tribunal du droit de la mer à l’état de droit: 1996-2016 (2018)

“The Caroline Incident (1837)”, in T. Ruys and O. Corten, with A. Hofer (eds.), The Use of Force in International Law: A Case-based Approach (2018)

“Security Council resolution 687 (1991)”, in M. Bowman and D. Kritsiotis (eds.), Conceptual and Contextual Perspectives on the Modern Law of Treaties (2018) 

“The Evolution and Identification of the Customary International Law of Armed Conflict”, 51 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2018)

HALSBURY’S LAWS OF ENGLAND, 5 th ed., Vol. 61 ‘International Relations Law’ (2010, contributor); ‘International Law and Foreign Relations’ (2018, contributor)


“The Right of Victims to Reparation: The Importance of Clear Thinking”, 78 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht/Heidelberg JIL (2018)

“Diplomatic Law Today: Alberico Gentili Would not Have Felt out of Place”, in V. Lavenia (ed.), Alberico e Scipione Gentili nell’Europa di ieri e di oggi (2018)

“The Immunities of Members of Special Missions” (with A. Sanger), in T. Ruys, N. Angelet and L. Ferro (eds.), Cambridge Handbook on Immunities and International Law (2019)

IMMUNITIES OF SPECIAL MISSIONS (with A. Sanger and the Council of Europe) (2019)

“The Negotiation of Multilateral Treaties at the United Nations: a Negotiator’s View”in S. Chesterman, D. Malone and S. Villalpando (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of United Nations Treaties (2019)

“Lessons from the ILC’s Work on ‘Immunity of State Officials’: Melland Schill Lecture, 21 November 2017”, 22 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law (2019)

“The ILA’s 2018 report on aggression and the use of force” (with N. Lubell), 6 Journal on the Use of Force and International Law (2019)

“Customary International Law and the General Principles of Law Recognized by Civilized Nations”, 21 International Community Law Review (2019)

“Assessing Practice on the Use of Force” 79 Zeitschrift für ausländisches öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht/Heidelberg JIL (2019)

“The UN International Law Commission and Customary International Law”, in E. Cannizzaro (ed.), Gaetano Morelli Lectures Series (Vol. 3 – 2020), Discourses on Methods in International Law: An Anthology (2020)

“Introductions”, Parry, Fitzmaurice, etc., in J.-P. Gauci and J. Barrett (eds.) Anthology of British Contributions to International Law 1915-2015 (2020)

“Report Number 6-20 (5), Treaty between Australia and the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste Establishing their Maritime Boundaries in the Timor Sea” (with S. Abayasekara, A. Telec and J. Whyatt), in C. Lathrop (ed.), International Maritime Boundaries, Vol. VIII (2020)

“International organizations and non-State actors in the International Law Commission’s conclusions on identification of customary international law” in S. Droubi and J. d’Aspremont (eds.), International organizations, non-State actors, and the formation of customary international law (2020)

“Third-Party Intervention and Involvement in Inter-State Arbitration” (with E. Sthoeger), in H. Ruiz Fabri, E. Franckx, M. Benatar and T. Meshel (eds.), A Bridge Over Troubled Waters. Dispute Resolution in the Law of International Watercourses and the Law of the Sea (2020)


“Customary International Law”, in [2018] Courses of the Summer School on Public International Law, vol. I (International and Comparative Law Research Center, Moscow, 2020)

“British Contributions to Public International Law”, in P. Hilpold (ed.), European International Law Traditions (2020)

“Compulsory Conciliation under UNCLOS: the Timor-Leste/Australia Commission’s Decision on Competence” (with E. Sthoeger), in V. Sancin (ed.), Theoretical and Practical Impressions of International Law, Liber Amicorum in Honour of Borut Bohte and Mirjam Škrk (forthcoming)

“Advisory Opinions in the UN Decision-Making Process” (with E. Sthoeger) in A. Skordas (ed.), Research Handbook on the International Court of Justice (forthcoming)

Published talks

Three lectures on “The UN Security Council and International Law” (2006), being the Hersch Lauterpacht Memorial Lectures and available on the website of the Lauterpacht Centre for International Law, University of Cambridge. An updated version of these lectures will be published by Cambridge University Press within the Hersch Lauterpacht Memorial Lectures series

“The use of force in 2015 with particular reference to Syria”, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 5 January 2016 (Hebrew University of Jerusalem Legal Studies Research Paper Series No. 16-05), available at

“Remarks on the importance of ‘teachings’ in international law, with particular reference to the Melland Schill Lecture Series”, Manchester International Law Centre, 1 February 2016, available at


“Customary International Law and Human Rights”, 27 June 2016, EUI Working Paper AEL 2016/03 Academy of European Law, Distinguished Lecture Series, available at

Workshop contributions

Workshop on current relevance of the Mandate for Palestine: Israel Law Review 2018

Workshop on recognition: Israel Law Review 2019


“Identifying the Rules for Identifying Customary International Law: Response from Michael Wood and Omri Sender”, AJIL Unbound (February 2015)

“The International Court of Justice and Customary International Law: A Reply to Stefan Talmon” (with O. Sender), EJIL: Talk! (November 2015)

“Sir Elihu Lauterpacht QC: the Practitioner as Publicist”, 3 Transnational Dispute Management, issue in honour of Eli Lauterpacht (2018)

Book forewords

“Foreword”, in: R. Gardiner, Treaty Interpretation (first ed., 2008)

“Foreword”, in: R. Caddell and R. Thomas (eds.), Shipping, Law and the Marine Environment in the 21st Century: Emerging Challenges for the Law of the Sea - Legal Implications and Liabilities (2013)

“Foreword”, in: J.A. Green, The Persistent Objector Rule in International Law (2016)

“Foreword”, in: P. Dumberry, The Formation and Identification of Rules of Customary

International Law in International Investment Law (2016)

“Foreword”, in: B. Lepard (ed.), Reexamining Customary International Law (2017)

Book reviews

T. Meron, Human Rights and Humanitarian Norms as Customary Law (1989), 61 British Yearbook of International Law (1990)

J. Crawford, The Creation of States in International Law (2 nd ed.), 55 International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2006)

M. Matheson, Council Unbound: The Growth of UN Decision Making on Conflict and Postconflict Issues after the Cold War (2006), 101 American Journal of International Law (2007)

Brierly’s Law of Nations (7 th ed., by A. Clapham) and Brownlie’s Principles of Public International Law (8 th ed., by J. Crawford), 107 American Journal of International Law (2013) (with O. Sender)

A.G. Oude Elferink, The Delimitation of the Continental Shelf between Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands: Arguing Law, Practicing Politics? (2013) 61 Netherlands International Law Review (2014)

H. Thirlway, The Sources of International Law, 4 Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law (2015)


“Antony Rushford”, obituary in The Telegraph (2009)


“Sir Ian Sinclair, KCMG, QC”, 83 British Yearbook of International Law (with F. Berman) (2012)

“Sir John Freeland, KCMG, QC”, 85 British Yearbook of International Law (with F. Berman) (2015)

“Hugh Thirlway”, 89 British Yearbook of International Law (with F. Berman) (2019)

Entries in the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law

- Collective Security (with E. de Wet)

- Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI) (with M.


- Final Act

- Helsinki Final Act (with D. Purisch)

- International Courts and Tribunals, Discontinuance of Cases

- International Seabed Authority

- Iraq, No-fly Zones

- Legal Advisers

- North Macedonia (with N. Pavlopoulos)

- Peace, Breach of

- State Practice (with O. Sender)

- Teachings of the Most Highly Qualified Publicists

- United Nations Administrative Tribunal, Applications for Review (Advisory


- United Nations Charter, Enemy State Clauses

- United Nations Security Council

- Use of Force, Prohibition of Threat


Contributions to the Princeton Encyclopedia of Self-determination (Encyclopedia Princetoniensis)

- Independence

- Non-interference

- Territorial integrity

Contributions to the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law (published online), including –

- Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against

   Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents, Introduction

- Convention on Special Missions, Introduction

- Statute of the International Law Commission, Introduction

- The Interpretation of Security Council Resolutions Revisited (lecture)

- The Law on the Use of Force: what happens in practice (lecture)

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